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How to Write Your First Research Paper

Characteristics of good scientific writing

❶Can nanomedicine potentially extend the human lifespan? I just feel like I need to build up my writing skills, so I will definitely be using quite a few if these.

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Meanwhile you have produced nothing; you are no further forward! Or perhaps you do start - you write the first few paragraphs, you don't feel happy with them, so you rewrite them again and again, and never make progress.

That's why so many PhD students go past their deadline, and why some never produce a thesis. The solution is simple, and it always works.

Let's assume that you have done all the preparation - you know more or less what you want to write about, and you have accumulated lots of rough notes or experimental results, etc.

Start writing, keep going, and don't look back until you get to the end! Remember that this is your first draft , and no-one else will see it. Don't worry about the finer points of structure. Don't worry about the order of your sentences - sometimes the order will be sensible, sometimes not. Don't worry about your spelling or punctuation. Don't worry if you can't find the right word or phrase - just use dashes or a reminder such as say something about dogs here and keep going.

Don't even worry if something you have written is not strictly true or will need to be checked. Once you have produced this rough draft you will have broken the back of the job.

Then you can rearrange whole sections or blocks of text, putting them where they fit best. And then you can go through the text, correcting anything you need to correct, and inserting anything you need to insert.

Everything that I have ever written including two books, more than scientific papers, and even this web site was produced initially as a rough draft from start to finish , and then rewritten or rearranged at least 3 times.

The Cut , Copy and Paste buttons on word-processors make the job easy when you have got the basic content in place. How to write a good scientific essay. Good writing requires preparation, organisation and structure. We don't really need these things in an email message although it helps! We certainly need them for anything that we want to "put on record" - an essay, a scientific report, etc. Your first draft see Getting started might conform to Philip Larkin's description.

Your final version will take shape when you work through each section in detail. What makes a good scientific essay? Look at your favourite textbook, or one of the good review journals such as "Trends" Trends in Evolution and Ecology , Trends in Microbiology , etc.

Why do you like it? Because its structure guides you through the subject in an accessible way: Your essay should have the same features. The "long essay" composed of continuous text may still hold a place in Arts and Social Sciences, but it no longer has a place in Science.

Any piece of writing should have an Introduction. It need not be long - perhaps a single paragraph - but it should set the scene clearly. For a scientific paper it is usual to give an overview of previous work in the field, then state why you did your work - e. For an essay it is usual to define clearly the subject you will address e. The Introduction will be the first section that you write, but it will probably be one of the last sections that you revise, to make sure that it leads the reader clearly into the details of the subject you have covered.

Does your Introduction start logically by telling us what the essay is about - for example, the various adaptations to habitat in the bear family Ursidae? Does your Introduction outline how you will address this topic - for example, by an overview of the habitats of bears, followed by in-depth treatment of some specific adaptations?

The main body of text should have a clear, obvious structure. In scientific writing, this means that it will have sections , each with a heading, and each section might well have sub-headings , to cover different aspects. You will need to think about the hierarchies of headings , so that the reader doesn't get lost.

There are several ways of doing this, but one example is: Section headings in bold lower case Mammals of the temperate zone , Birds , etc.

Sub-sections in italics The arctic fox , The polar bear , etc. You should include tables , diagrams , and perhaps photographs in your essay. See tables, diagrams, photographs. Tables are valuable for summarising information, and are most likely to impress if they show the results of relevant experimental data. Diagrams enable the reader to visualise things, replacing the need for lengthy descriptions.

That makes it easier because you get a head start on your research. These research ideas are all good. If you have any easier research topic pls do tell - still science related.

Hi ALX--If you are going to do a science project rather than a research paper, you might want to look up my science fair ideas. I have over 10 proven science fair projects for ages from kindergarten through secondary school. If you are doing a paper and want a project to research, you might want to try looking at my article Technology topics for essay because that one has a lot of links to articles you can use.

Hello, I am going to enter a science competition but still can't find an interesting topic. These topics are good but hard for me to understand because I am only in secondary school first year. Can anyone please help me??? Hi Maleni--Here are some topics that are very current: How can chemistry contribute to the development of new types of batteries?

What are the ways biomacromolecules or synthetic molecules can be used in imaging or for new medical therapies? Hello can anyone help me with a interesting topic for my chemistry class? I have to do a paper bases on anything that has to do with chemistry! Here are some alternative research questions on the topic of euthanasia: Do euthanasia tend to happen more to poor people?

Should an individual be able to consider the burden of medical costs on their family when making a decision about euthanasia? What is the cause of most people wanting to choose euthanasia? Is there a moral difference between passive euthanasia vs. What are other research questions that involve euthanasia? I am really interested in writing about this, I'm just not sure how to form a scientific question about it for my research paper.

That is interesting and current and you should be able to find plenty to write about. What is the future of nanotechnology? Or How nanotechnology will improve our lives. Are radiography departments prepared for morbidly obese patients? Another along this line would be: How has the increase in morbid obesity changed the medical field or changed radiography?

Hi Jafta, I would suggest that you look up some forensic study journals. That will give you an idea of the types of articles and studies that are done in forensic investigations.

Getting a couple of sources on the same topic will put you ahead in writing your paper. To write a topic for research, you need to find something that people are debating in forensic studies. Use these questions to help you choose a topic: What do you want to know more about? What is the most important unsolved problem? What can I research that will help me understand this job better?

Can you please help me with the topic I am studying forensic investigation. The question is Based on your field of study, propose a suitable research topic for your study? Hi Manelisi--If you are looking for research topics in a particular field or area, you will often get the best ideas by searching for "current trends" or "current research" in that field. You can also look at the most recent journal articles in top journals of that field.

See 47 more comments. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages and Hubbers authors may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others. To provide a better website experience, owlcation. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so. For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: How to Start Your Science Research Paper Science topics are interesting to write and easy to research because there are so many current and reputable journals online.

If you don't find a topic here, you might want to look at: Is the paleo diet eating mostly meat really the way prehistoric people lived? Is it the optimal diet for humans? Is Europe's opposition to genetically modified crops about science or economics? Can molecular biological research of rare genetic disorders help provide keys to understanding cancer and other illnesses? Is behavioral epigenetics true? If so, how should we apply this idea? What is the molecular evidence that humans once interbred with Neanderthals?

With other now-extinct species? As men age, do they pass on genetic abnormalities to their children? Is personalized medicine based on our own genome the wave of the future?

Is stem cell treatment really promising? Will researchers really be able to use genetics to help us live both longer and healthier? Physics and Astronomy Research Ideas How old is the universe? How important is it to explore our solar system? Is space exploration really necessary? What is dark energy? What do we really know about the universe we live in? What happened in the "Big Bang? Was there ever life on Mars? Why is Pluto no longer a planet?

What caused the Astroid Belt? What has the International Space Station discovered that is most important? Is it realistic that people can live on another planet? How will private space flight companies change the future of space exploration?

Should the United States return to the moon and try to go to other planets? It has been claimed that going into space is important for scientific development. What scientific breakthroughs have come about through the space programs?

What is the future of commercial space flight? What is the likelihood that a comet will strike the earth? What is the best way to detect and stop this? How can we solve the problem of "space junk"? How have meteorites changed our view of the Universe? Is it likely that there is life on other planets? What would it take for a planet to have life? What is "Dark Matter" and why is it important? What are black holes? How has the Hubble Space Telescope changed the way we look at the Universe?

What is Higgs Boson? Will it destroy the Universe? How do sunspots affect us on earth? How will private space flight companies change the development of space resources? What is the likelihood that the Earth would be struck by a large asteroid or comet like the one believed to have killed off the dinosaurs? What can we do about it? Should humans really make the effort to find a way to live in space or on other planets?

After you have chosen your topic, you can get started writing using my other articles: How to Write a Thesis Sentence. Writing Great Topic Sentences. Writing a Research Outline. Step-by-Step Argument Paper Writing. What is the role DNA polymerases plan in maintaining the integrity of genetic information? What are the possibilities of targeting DNA polmerases with pharmaceutical agents in cancer therapies?

What are the top 5 chemistry careers? What is the best way to capture and use carbon dioxide? What are the chemicals that trigger allergies? How can chemists help prevent allergies? What is the best chemical process of microbrewing beer?

How can atom thick graphene be used to create new technologies? What are the latest developments in the chemistry of adhesives? What are the challenges for developing environmentally-friendly plastics?

Are chemicals from pharmaceuticals ending up in our water supply? How important is biocomputing and big data to the future of chemical research? How can the bioluminescence GFP from jellyfish be used in medical applications? How can metal oxides improve cell phones? Chemists are working on making plastics from non-petroleum products.

What are some of the most promising experiements? How can the hardest crystal, boron nitride, be best used in practical applications? What is the possibility that spun sugar strands could be useful for medical purposes?

How are clouds formed? What is the connection between chemicals in seawater and cloud formation? How can research on hydrophobic-hydrophilic surfaces help create chemical coatings and how would these be best used? What is the sugar chemistry of making candy?

What are Biomacromolecules and why are they important? What are important trends in medicinal chemistry research in India? Why is nuclear fusion always just out of reach? Will it ever become a useful technology? Environment and Ecology Is it a good idea that the U. Can endangered areas and animals be saved by helping local people develop alternative economies like raising tropical fish or ecotourism?

Which of the current science fiction movies is the most plausible? Why do birds have such beautifully colored feathers? How are insects being used as models for miniature robots? Why do animals hibernate? Should disposable products be banned or limited? What is Green building? How helpful is it to the environment and is it worth the extra cost? Should alternative energy companies get government subsidies? Is offshore drilling safe? Is recycling metal really important??

How important is climate change legislation? Is hydraulic fracking going to destroy important ecosystems? Nanotechnology Research How can microelectronics be used to help people with chronic ailments? What developments in nanotechnology are currently being made for medical applications? What is the effect of nanotechnology on research and development of medical technologies?

Can microelectronics inside of contact lenses help diabetics control their blood sugar? What is nanotechnology for medical use? How can "smart clothes" be used to help medical patients? How can nanotechnology be used to treat cancer patients? Do the benefits of nanotechnology for medical uses outweigh the risks? What are the risks of developing nanotechnology in medicine? How can nanotechnology be used to work with DNA?

Should we use nanobots to produce and deliver drugs to human patients? Are nanofibers the answer to repairing spinal cord and brain injuries?

Should we use nanotechnology to feed ourselves? What are the challenges of nanomaterials and nano designs? How could nanomedicine be used to better treat patients in remote regions or the developing world?

Can nanomedicine potentially extend the human lifespan? Will nanotechnologies make it possible for people to live in outer space? How can nanotechnologies help us clean up toxic waste? How should nanomaterial be regulated? How can nanotechnology improve diagnostic testing in patients? Can covering surfaces with nanoparticles improve airplanes, houses, and other structures? Is nanotechnology a viable commercial idea? Should we invest in further research and development? Is the desktop nanofabrication tool a viable option for low-cost, easy nanotechnology?

Can nanomaterials be used to reduce CO2 emissions? Nanotechnology Sources to Help You Research Nanomedicine Journal is an open access journal that includes abstracts of current research as well as many free articles. Institute of Nanotechnology includes articles on the most recent developments as well as links to information on nanotechnology and reports of commercial viability.

PhysOrg links to many bio and medicine nanotechnology articles. Huge Potential But What Are the Risks has science reviews which cover a variety of new nanotechnologies and their potential for helping people, with a discussion of the possible risks. Google has developed "smart glasses" which are being tested, but the company is also interested in using microcomputers to help diabetics monitor blood sugar levels. Smart Clothes for Medical Uses: NPR interview on Science Friday with a scientist developing nanofibers which could be used to produce "smart clothes" to monitor patients with cancer and other medical conditions.

Healthcare Is stem cell research ethical? Is health care ready for the routine screening of patient DNA? What is a chimera and how could it help stem cell research? What are the potential benefits and risks of stem cell research? Are microbes that create chemicals and antibiotics going to help us prevent infections?

What is the best treatment for leukemia? How will wearable medical devices transform healthcare? Can scientists cure diseases by building new organs? What is gene therapy? What causes skin cancer? What is the best strategy for people to avoid getting cancer? Which cancers are we closest to finding cures for? What has been the impact of colonoscopy testing on colon cancer rates? Why do so many women get breast cancer? Why is malaria such a difficult disease to eliminate?

Will global warming make tropical diseases like malaria and dengue fever travel north? What is the best strategy to slow the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases? Why doesn't the flu vaccine work all the time? How likely is it that a pandemic will arise that will kill large numbers of people in the world? Is it possible to predict the next pandemic? How well do childhood vaccines prevent diseases? What is the West Nile virus?

Why do people get epilepsy? How can it best be treated? Do doctors rely too much on expensive medical imaging technologies? Do microbes cause Alzheimer's disease? Can memory loss and dementia be prevented? How do cells protect the body from disease? Does Chinese traditional medicine work better than Western medicine in some cases? What is the best indicator of an increased risk of heart disease?

Are annual doctor's check-ups really necessary? Are they really the best way to help people stay healthy? Why are some diseases that we thought we had eradicated like the measles or whooping cough returning to infect people?

Is it beneficial or harmful for wild animals to have interactions with people? Robotics and Computer Science Topics Can robots be used to help kill invasive species? How can robotic exosuits be used in industry and business for training and increasing production?

How are robots going to improve medicine? A robot can now perform a routine colonoscopy. What is the future of surgical robots? How will self-driving cars change the way people live? Will delivery drones be bringing us our pizza and mail? Is using drones for warfare a good or bad idea? How can research on improving the artificial intelligence in robots teach us more about ourselves?

Is it always bad? Can using system like bitcom help protect identity theft? What is the future of computing and artificial intelligence? What are the important issues about privacy and big data? How is bioinformatics transforming biology? How can mining big data in the healthcare industry make us healthier? How can computer science programs and games like Eyewire help us understand the brain? Health Science Research Sources Science: A premier publication in the field, Science has peer-reviewed research as well as information that is curated by experts.

Publishes peer-reviewed articles on biology, environment, health and physical sciences. Nature is an authoritative source for current information.

If articles are difficult to read, you can search for the same information in one of the more popular journals online. Los Angeles Times Science and Health: This online science news source offers readable articles on many of the most current science topics.

You can find good ideas for topics here as well as research for your own paper. If you are required to get peer-reviewed articles, then you can search here for easy-to-read summaries and then look up the original articles online or in the library. You can search this site for articles on science topics, including health science.

This site often gives you links to original articles and government reports that can help you do your research. Contains over , articles on a variety of health topics. This site gives concise explanations of current research along with links to original papers or other information to help you further your research ideas. You can email or print the articles on this site and find out if they are from academic publications. Current Medical Research Questions What technologies are in development to help people who are paralyzed?

How does sleep deprivation affect health? Should sugar be regulated like a drug? What are the benefits and disadvantages of individual genome profiling? What is the Human Connectome Project and how will mapping of the human brain contribute to scientific knowledge?

Are some cancers caused by genes? Who are the Denisovans and how does their discovery alter our view of human evolution? Can we develop an anti-cancer vaccine? What can we do about crops which absorb toxins, such as the recent discovery of arsenic-tainted rice?

What is the ideal weight for longevity? What is the connection between diet and lifespan? Are we really in a post-antibiotic era as the CDC recently announced? What does this mean? Should scientific publication and grant systems be changed to give private citizens and younger scientists a voice if they have good ideas?

Which diet choice is better: How can polio be eradicated? Why has the disease resurfaced? How important are the bacteria living in your bowels? How close are computers to mimicking the human brain? How can video games be used to solve scientific problems? Do cell phones or microwaves cause cancer?

Psychology and Neurobiology Issues Is autism a kind of brain damage? How can we help autistic savants become productive members of society? Why do we sleep? How much sleep do we really need? How is sleep related to memory? How did human speech develop? Are there clues we can find in researching primate social interactions? How do we remember things? How reliable are our memories in recalling how things really happened? What is the importance of time and space in brain development and disease?

Why do mothers protect their young and even risk their lives? How does our brain really work? What is mental illness? Is there something we can learn from these different sorts of mental states?

How does language reveal stress responses? Your Science Interest Which of the following areas of science research do you find most interesting?

Maybe I'll write an article on your idea! Any of the topics on this Which question about cancer could I consider as possible topics for a research paper? Here are some interesting cancer research topics: What is the best new treatment for pancreatic cancer? Is gene therapy a good choice for cancer patients? Are there any holistic or alternative therapies that help cancer patients?

What is the best diet and exercise plan to prevent cancer? Should the cost of cancer therapy be considered by patients when choosing a therapy? Why is it so hard to find cures for cancer?

When is cancer screening most useful, effective or preventative? Can I have scientific topics for grades 6 to 7? For a couple of quick ideas, try the following: Which DNA testing service is the best? How will DNA sequencing change health care? What are some possible topics on biology for a science research paper? You can also find some easier topics in the life science in these articles: What is the easiest science topic for a research paper? To pick the easiest topic for you, choose one that: Is interesting to you.

Is a topic you already know something about. Is something you have an opinion about. Is it possible to have Do you have science research topics that involve asking the opinion of people? Science interview questions could be: What do you think about the topic of creation vs.

How important do you think it is to have your DNA sequenced for science? Would you be willing to donate your body to science after you die? How do colors affect your mood? What do you think is the most important medical discovery in your lifetime? Publications and reports of Indian scientists. Includes some interesting information about traffic incidents and health issues. Government agency which oversees the sciences and research. Find links to other U.

Medical Topics Does the size of your waist increase your diabetes and heart attack risk? What is the possibility of finding a cure to cystic fibrosis? How can it be prevented? What is the best way to keep your brain healthy for life?

How dangerous is a concussion? What is the best way to treat a concussion? What is the best way to decrease infant mortality rates in developing nations? How can we eliminate polio? What can cities do about it? Are E-Cigarettes a path away from tobacco or towards it? What is inflammatory bowel disease? How can it be best treated? Can the food you eat help you avoid this chronic illness? What is the importance of the microorganisms which live inside and on humans?

How to they help and hurt us? What alternatives to antibiotics are being developed? Can those clues help doctors to diagnose us? Can the odors of our bodily fluids give us clue about our health? Can 3-D printing technology be used to help in medicine? Can 3-D printing be used to create body parts and organs for people? Can traditional Chinese medicine techniques like acupuncture, cupping, reflexology, and massage therapy really work?

How is nanotechnology helpful in treating cancer? Are the chemicals used in food packaging harmful to human health? What treatments are available for women who have repeated miscarriages?

Can stem cells be used to help cut death rates in heart attack patients? Can miscarriages be prevented with lifestyle changes? Are eating disorders fatal? How can they best be prevented? What is really the best and healthiest diet for humans? Is it low-carbohydrate, high-carbohydrate, low-sugar, high-protein, or vegetarian? Magazine and Newspaper Links You can find out the most current arguments on scientific and medical issues by looking through recent issues of major newspapers and magazines.

Includes special areas for environmental news and space and the cosmos. Includes both articles and videos about recent events and scientific discoveries.

Discusses the development of science and technology in Asia. Gives information about how China is working with Africa and other developing nations to improve health and science. Features articles about many different medical topics, current news, and research. US News and World Report: Does an especially good job of giving information about health and diet.

Mental Health Topics Why do some people remember dreams and others don't? Does this affect mental health? Does mental illness cause you to get physical illness more frequently? What makes us human? How is the human brain different? Do shorter people really have an inferiority complex? How can this best be treated? How important is sleep to mental health? What are the long-term effects of using drugs like Prozac or Ritalin on mental health?

How can it best be measured? How can teenage depression be best diagnosed and treated? Are most homeless people mentally ill? Can people be cured of multiple-personality disorder?

How can we best prevent suicide? What are the treatments? How does family stress affect brain development in children? Does more stress equal more headaches and other physical symptoms?

How can families help their elderly loved ones feel less lonely and depressed? Does epilepsy or asthma increase the risk of self-harm? Who suffers chronic pain the most? How is this related to mental health? Does stopping smoking improve mental health? What is the effectiveness of behavioral therapy techniques? Does caregiving cause psychological stress?

Do spirituality and religion protect people from mental illness? Do concussions increase the risk of depression?

Psychology Topics Does drinking soda or eating sugary foods increase aggression in children? Does a mother's depression during pregnancy affect her baby's brain? Can talk therapy really change the brain? How does Post Traumatic Stress Disorder affect people's lives? Do premature infants need to hear parent's voices? Do parasites have a way of changing our behavior?

Can bad memories be erased? How does your sense of taste or smell relate to your personality? Do men and women have the same sense of smell? Does switching schools lead to kids having a higher risk of psychosis? What is the impact of bullying on children? Are toxic chemicals causing the recent rise in ADHD, autism, and other neurodevelopmental disabilities?

How does Ritalin affect the brain? How does memory work? Do infections increase memory decline? Can caffeine help your memory? Can the lighting in a room affect the way you make decisions? Why are some people unable to break free of them? Why are people moral? What causes us to choose right from wrong? Does the weather really affect people's moods? Is there such a thing as "snow rage? Can a person become mentally unhealthy when they gain too much wealth and power too quickly?

Why do holidays make some people unhappy? What is a sexual addiction? Can it be overcome? What is the best way to handle "needy" friends? Is laughter the best medicine? What causes someone to be vulnerable to dating violence? What causes people to indulge in binge drinking? Does the Super Bowl cause domestic violence and other crimes?

Can apps help people cope with mental illness and anxiety? Non-profit Organization Links Many diseases and medical conditions have a non-profit agency which provides help for people with that condition.

To find out if the medical disease you are writing about has a website: Google search the name of the disease or health condition with "non-profit. On the website, look to see if it is a non-profit devoted to educating and researching that issue. Search the website for "research" articles.

There will sometimes just be a description of the research which you may need to Google search in order to find the article.

Often, they may even provide links to the research article or the article to download.

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A Guide to Writing Scientific Essays These are general points that any good scientific essay should follow. 1. Structure: essays should make an argument: your essay should have a point and reach a conclusion, even if tentative, and you should try to convince the reader that your point is correct.

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Scientific research papers and essays are perhaps the most difficult to write. Indeed, these are not personal or descriptive essays in which you either express own viewpoint or depict chosen topic. Scientific essays contain so much tech information that it is sometimes very difficult to write a persuasive scientific essay.

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Dr Peter Judge | Tutorial Essays for Science Subjects 1 Tutorial Essays for Science Subjects This guide is designed to provide help and advice on scientific writing. Scientific writing in English started in the 14th century. The Royal Society established good practice for scientific writing. Founder member Thomas Sprat wrote on the importance of plain and accurate description rather than rhetorical flourishes in his History of the Royal Society of London.

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- Critically Discuss the Use of the Scientific Method in Psychology This essay examines the advantages and disadvantages of using a method primarily for gathering research on human subjects that can be examined for later use. Jan 19,  · If you are doing a written essay based on the research writing of others, you can write your answers to the question based on what you have read in your literature search. 5. Using those thesis answers, you can begin to put your outline mihtorg.gas: