Control groups are identified and exposed to the variable. Results are compared with results from groups not exposed to the variable. Experimental Designs , often called true experimentation, use the scientific method to establish cause-effect relationship among a group of variables in a research study. Researchers make an effort to control for all variables except the one being manipulated the independent variable.
The effects of the independent variable on the dependent variable are collected and analyzed for a relationship. When deciding on the appropriate approach, the Decision Tree from Ebling Library may be helpful.
The following video, Quantitative Research Designs, further describes the differences between quantitative research approaches and offers tips on how to decide on methodology. Planning the Methodology — The Quantitative Pathway — The following link provides a description of the four types of quantitative approaches and examples of each.
Quantitative Design — The following resource describes quantitative research approaches and exmaples. Choosing an appropriate study design — Below is a link to a presentation that describes the factors to consider when choosing the appropriate approach for quantitative research. This pin will expire , on Change. This pin never expires. Select an expiration date. About Us Contact Us. Search Community Search Community. Quantitative Approaches In this module, the four approaches to quantitative research are described and examples are provided.
List and explain the four approaches to quantitative research. Provide an example of each method. Describe how to identify the appropriate approach for a particular research problem. Qualitative and quantitative approaches. Case studies often lead to testable hypotheses and allow us to study rare phenomena.
Case studies should not be used to determine cause and effect, and they have limited use for making accurate predictions. There are two serious problems with case studies — expectancy effects and atypical individuals. Describing atypical individuals may lead to poor generalizations and detract from external validity. In survey method research, participants answer questions administered through interviews or questionnaires.
After participants answer the questions, researchers describe the responses given. In order for the survey to be both reliable and valid it is important that the questions are constructed properly. Questions should be written so they are clear and easy to comprehend. Another consideration when designing questions is whether to include open-ended, closed-ended, partially open-ended, or rating-scale questions for a detailed discussion refer to Jackson, Advantages and disadvantages can be found with each type:.
Open-ended questions allow for a greater variety of responses from participants but are difficult to analyze statistically because the data must be coded or reduced in some manner. Closed-ended questions are easy to analyze statistically, but they seriously limit the responses that participants can give.
In addition to the methods listed above some individuals also include qualitative as a distinct method and archival methods when discussing descriptive research methods. It is important to emphasize that descriptive research methods can only describe a set of observations or the data collected.
It cannot draw conclusions from that data about which way the relationship goes — Does A cause B, or does B cause A? Nothing could be further from the truth. Research Methods and Statistics: A Critical Thinking Approach 3rd edition. Jamie has written seven books and co-authored one. Find help or get online counseling now.
By Jamie Hale, M.
One of the goals of science is description (other goals include prediction and explanation). Descriptive research methods are pretty much as they sound — they describe situations. They do not.
Descriptive research is a study designed to depict the participants in an accurate way. The three main ways to collect this information are: Observational, defined as a method of viewing and recording the participants. Case study, defined as an in-depth study of an individual or group of individuals.
Descriptive research can be explained as a statement of affairs as they are at present with the researcher having no control over variable. Moreover, “descriptive studies may be characterised as simply the attempt to determine, describe or identify what is, while analytical research attempts to. Many of the benefits and limitations of the specific descriptive research methods have been alluded to in previous modules in this series. Following is a summary regarding both the advantages and the disadvantages of using descriptive research methodology in general.
The 3 Basic Types of Descriptive Research Methods" by Jamie Hale. There are three main types of descriptive methods: observational methods, case-study methods and survey methods. Chapter 11 Descriptive and interpretive approaches to qualitative research Robert Elliott and Ladislav Timulak Qualitative research methods today are a diverse set, encompassing approaches such as.