Other styles include a list of the citations, with complete bibliographical references, in an end section, sorted alphabetically by author. This section is often called "References", "Bibliography", "Works cited" or "Works consulted". In-text references for online publications may differ from conventional parenthetical referencing. A full reference can be hidden, only displayed when wanted by the reader, in the form of a tooltip.
Citation styles can be broadly divided into styles common to the Humanities and the Sciences, though there is considerable overlap. Some style guides, such as the Chicago Manual of Style , are quite flexible and cover both parenthetical and note citation systems. These may be referred to as citation formats as well as citation styles. A number of organizations have created styles to fit their needs; consequently, a number of different guides exist.
Individual publishers often have their own in-house variations as well, and some works are so long-established as to have their own citation methods too: Stephanus pagination for Plato ; Bekker numbers for Aristotle ; citing the Bible by book, chapter and verse; or Shakespeare notation by play. In some areas of the Humanities, footnotes are used exclusively for references, and their use for conventional footnotes explanations or examples is avoided.
In these areas, the term "footnote" is actually used as a synonym for "reference", and care must be taken by editors and typesetters to ensure that they understand how the term is being used by their authors. In their research on footnotes in scholarly journals in the field of communication, Michael Bugeja and Daniela V.
Dimitrova have found that citations to online sources have a rate of decay as cited pages are taken down , which they call a "half-life", that renders footnotes in those journals less useful for scholarship over time.
Other experts have found that published replications do not have as many citations as original publications. Another important issue is citation errors, which often occur due to carelessness on either the researcher or journal editor's part in the publication procedure. Experts have found that simple precautions, such as consulting the author of a cited source about proper citations, reduce the likelihood of citation errors and thus increase the quality of research.
Research suggests the impact of an article can be, partly, explained by superficial factors and not only by the scientific merits of an article. Citation patterns are also known to be affected by unethical behavior of both the authors and journal staff. Such behavior is called impact factor boosting, and was reported to involve even the top-tier journals. Citation cartels are defined as groups of authors that cite each other disproportionately more than they do other groups of authors who work on the same subject.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For help making citations within Wikipedia, see Wikipedia: A Manual for Writers. Retrieved 20 May A Professional System of Citation, 4th ed.
Aspen, , 3. Retrieved 18 January Archived from the original on April 30, Archived from the original on November 13, Principles, practices and problems. Scientific style and format: Archived from the original on December 28, Archived from the original on February 3, Citing History Sources from Artifacts to cyberspace. University of Alberta , Augustana Campus, Canada. A new dimension in documentation through association of ideas".
International Journal of Epidemiology. International Journal of Research in Marketing. Fawlty Towers of Knowledge? If the list contains only one entry, make the heading Work Cited. Double-space between the title and the first entry. Begin each entry flush with the left margin; if an entry runs more than one line, indent the subsequent line or lines half an inch from the left margin.
This format is sometimes called hanging indention , and you can set your writing program to create it automatically for a group of paragraphs.
Hanging indention makes alphabetical lists easier to use. Double-space the entire list. Continue it on as many pages as necessary. Place tables and illustrations as close as possible to the parts of the text to which they relate. A table is usually labeled Table , given an arabic numeral, and titled. Type both label and title flush left on separate lines above the table, and capitalize them as titles do not use all capital letters. Give the source of the table and any notes immediately below the table in a caption.
To avoid confusion between notes to the text and notes to the table, designate notes to the table with lowercase letters rather than with numerals.
Double-space throughout; use dividing lines as needed fig. Any other type of illustrative visual material—for example, a photograph, map, line drawing, graph, or chart—should be labeled Figure usually abbreviated Fig. If the caption of a table or illustration provides complete information about the source and the source is not cited in the text, no entry for the source in the works-cited list is necessary.
Musical illustrations are labeled Example usually abbreviated Ex. Pyotr Ilich Tchaikovsky, Symphony no. Use a high-quality printer. Proofread and correct your research paper carefully before submitting it. If you are checking a printout and find a mistake, reopen the document, make the appropriate revisions, and reprint the corrected page or pages. Be sure to save the changed file. Spelling checkers and usage checkers are helpful when used with caution.
They do not find all errors and sometimes label correct material as erroneous. Do not use the margins or write a change below the line it affects. If corrections on any page are numerous or substantial, revise your document and reprint the page. Pages of a printed research paper may get misplaced or lost if they are left unattached or merely folded down at a corner. Many prefer that a paper be secured with a simple paper or binder clip, which can be easily removed and restored.
Others prefer the use of staples. There are at present no commonly accepted standards for the electronic submission of research papers. If you are asked to submit your paper electronically, obtain from your teacher guidelines for formatting, mode of submission e. Designed to be printed out and used in the classroom. From the MLA Handbook , 8th ed. Need assistance with this form? Formatting a Research Paper.
Weatherbee’s paper is a source; you cite that source by pointing to it with the citation. A citation is text that points to the author of a work from whom you have gathered information that you’ve included in .
How to Format an in Text Citation There are a number of ways in which you can reference the source, but most are based upon variations of MLA and APA style. Check with your supervisor which exact technique you should be using, and be consistent.
Writing a paper, especially a research paper, requires you to cite your source for any information or thoughts that are not your own. If you do not, you risk being accused of plagiarism. A citation is a reference to a published or unpublished source. See The MLA Style Manual and The MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, particularly Citation and bibliography format. The MHRA Style Guide is published by the Modern Humanities Research Association.
Proper in-text citations within a research or term paper can make the difference between a passing and failing grade, as failure to provide proper in-text citations can lead to a charge of plagiarism. APA Research Paper Format. APA (American Psychological Association) research paper format is often used in papers related to psychology and social sciences. In this citation, there is a general format in referencing through endnotes/footnotes, in-text, and reference pages.