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❶Allen , revised New horizons in esthetic dentistry videocassette].

Citation–Sequence and Citation–Name




Naked mole rats dig six times faster in desert soils than dung beetles do Parsons Be sure to list any sources you cite in the text in the Literature Cited section, and only those that you cite. As a rule of thumb, if there is more than one author of a source, simply use the first author's last name, followed by et al.

This is Latin for "and others". The complete list of authors will appear in the full citation at the end of your paper. Your Literature Cited should appear in alphabetical order by first author, and by year if there are multiple sources by the same author s. Underline journal and book titles, but not the titles of individual articles in journals or edited multi-authored books. Use the following as examples for citing various kinds of sources with thanks to M.

Glimpsing the hidden majority. Phosphotization of soft tissue in experiments and fossils. Journal of the Geological Society Seattle Times , January 5th, p. The Burgess Shale and the Nature of History. Taphonomy and the fossil record. The work is presented here without copyright, although acknowledgement is of course appreciated.

This document is also available in in Adobe Acrobat Format. It is important to properly and appropriately cite references in scientific research papers in order to acknowledge your sources and give credit where credit is due.

Science moves forward only by building upon the work of others. There are, however, other reasons for citing references in scientific research papers. Citations to appropriate sources show that you've done your homework and are aware of the background and context into which your work fits, and they help lend validity to your arguments. Reference citations also provide avenues for interested readers to follow up on aspects of your work -- they help weave the web of science.

You may wish to include citations for sources that add relevant information to your own work, or that present alternate views. The reference citation style described here is a version of the "Author, Date" scientific style, adapted from Hansen and the Council of Biology Editors You should acknowledge a source any time and every time you use a fact or an idea that you obtained from that source.

Thus, clearly, you need to cite sources for all direct quotations. But you also need to cite sources from which you paraphrase or summarize facts or ideas -- whether you've put the fact or idea into your own words or not, you got the fact or idea from somebody else and you need to give them proper acknowledgement even if an idea might be considered "common knowledge," but you didn't know it until you found it in a particular source.

You only need to include the page number in the citation if you are quoting directly, or if the source is very long and the specific fact or idea you are citing can only be found on a specific page.

Direct quotations that are more than 4 lines long should be set off from the rest of your paper by use of narrower margins and single spaced lines. If you have more than one source by the same author published in the same year, distinguish them both in the in-text citation and in the reference list, by appending the letters a, b, c If your source of information is from a personal verbal communication, you would use the following format for the first citation from that person:.

If your source of information is from written correspondence a letter or e-mail , you would substitute the word "written" for the word "personal" above, and you would add the date of the letter if dated.

Personal communications are generally not included in the References Cited or Bibliography section, although unpublished papers, reports or manuscripts should be.

If your source of information has no individual identifiable author, use the name of the organization to which the work can be attributed in place of the author's name:. For internet sources without any identifiable author or date, simply use the URL address as the in-text citation:. Your list of References Cited should include all of the references you cited in your paper, and no more! It should be arranged in alphabetical order by the last name of the first author.


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Scientific Style and Format presents three systems for referring to references (also known as citations) within the text of a journal article, book, or other scientific publication: 1) citation–sequence; 2) name–year; and 3) citation–name. These abbreviated references are called in-text references.

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The reference citation style described here is a version of the "Author, Date" scientific style, adapted from Hansen () and the Council of Biology Editors (). Harnack & Kleppinger () have adapted "CBE style" to cite and document online sources.

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Good job citing! Now get peace of mind. Scan your paper for grammar mistakes and catch unintentional plagiarism. How to Cite Sources in Scientific Writing. In-Text Citations. The complete list of authors will appear in the full citation at the end of your paper. Your Literature Cited should appear in alphabetical order by first author, and by year if there are multiple sources by the same author(s).

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Resources for Finding and Accessing Scientific Papers. Email. Print. Introduction. Reading scientific literature is a critical part of conceiving of and executing a successful advanced science project. The How to Read a Resources for Finding Science Paper Citations. The citation style to use is determined by your professor, or if you are submitting a manuscript, by the journal or publisher. However, each discipline tends to use one or two styles. Anthropology - use Chicago.