A note on plagiarism please read before submission: Latest Impact Factor 3. Anahid Jewett, et al. Cited by 45 Chikezie O.
Novel diagnostic biomarkers for prostate cancer. Cited by 76 Ohtani H, et al. A meta-analysis of the short-and long-term results of randomized controlled trials that compared laparoscopy-assisted and conventional open surgery for colorectal cancer. Cited by 70 Dario Sangiolo. Cited by 61 Sara A. The most validated reason for breast cancer is estradiol exposure. For this reason, being a woman is the greatest risk factor of all.
Women have many more breast cells which are constantly being exposed to growth hormones. White women are also higher risk than their black counterparts, though the reason for this is not known Apantaku, ACS, Due to estradiol, an early onset of menses or the late development of menopause puts a woman at greater risk because there are an increased number of menstrual cycles leading to extra estradiol production.
For this same reason, women whose cycles are shorter than 25 days; women who have used conventional animal estrogens or synthetic hormone for more than five years; and those women who used birth control before their first pregnancy, before 20, or for more than five years before 35 double and possibly triple the risk for developing breast cancer. Hereditary, dietary and lifestyle factors are also contributors to beast cancer risk.
Women whose mothers had breast cancer are at twice the risk for developing this disease, generally the younger the mother is at the time of diagnosis the greater the risk. If a sister has breast cancer or a brother has prostate the risk can increase even more.
Diets high in fat are also linked to this illness; because more fat cells produce more estrogen, high fats promote early onset of menstrual cycle, and there are hydrogenated fats from trans-fatty acids found in margarine which are considered cacogenic. Increased alcohol consumption also promotes increased estrogen levels.
Lack of regular, physical exercise can also be a risk factor, because exercise directly decreases estradiol absorption and improves immune response. Now that some of the risk factors are known, can breast cancer be prevented? While it is not possible to completely prevent the disease it is possible to reduce the risk with a hormone called Tamoxifen.
Tamoxifen is an antiestrogen drug which is most often taken in pill form for approximately five years. This hormone is not only used as a preventive treatment for development of cancer in those people who have not had it , but it is also used to prevent a second episode of the disease and to prevent further tumor development during the actual disease process. Unfortunately, this therapy does not come without side effects.
The use of this drug increases the risk for developing uterine carcinoma, a rare and potentially serious condition. Other side effects include weight gain, mood swings, hot flashes, blood clots and cataracts.
Because of these serious side effects it is important for a patient to weigh their options, but more often then not the benefits prevail. Symptoms found with breast cancer are masses, pain, erythema, nipple drainage, and enlarged lymph nodes.
The most common complaint which causes women to seek medical attention is a breast mass. The etiology for fibroadenoma is unknown, but the pathogenesis is a clonal stromal component.
There is proliferation of both the ducts and the stroma, numerous fibroblasts of the stroma can be seen along with a pale eosinophilic cytoplasm.
The typical duct epithelium often lines the glandular spaces which may lead to compression because of this fibrous proliferation. There are two types of breast pain, cyclic and non-cyclic. Non-cyclic pain however, is often only experienced in certain area of the breast. This pain may sometimes be caused by injury or trauma to the breast such as after a breast biopsy.
It is associated with both pre and post menopausal women and is most common in 40 to 50 year old. Although these pains often subside after a couple of years and are not usually associated with breast cancer the possibility still exists and therefore should be discussed with a physician. Another symptom is erythema, an abnormal redness of the skin. There is dilation of the superficial capillaries of the skin which then leads to inflammation and redness.
Contact theuniversitypapers team to do your breast cancer research papers now: The twentieth century has often been called as the cancer century. This is because more than a hundred types of cancer have been discovered in this century, and secondly, because enormous medical efforts were made to fight all kinds of cancers all over the world.
In the early decades of the century, cancer was considered to be a fatal disease, and although many cancers remain fatal, medical therapy has developed significantly over the years such that most cancers can be treated and cured. After decades of struggling with various cancers, doctors are now becoming more aware of the causes of these diseases, how they can be treated, and what can be done to prevent them. When such a growth takes place, the cancer cells form a tumor from which cells will invade the neighboring tissues and organs.
Some of these cells may even travel through the blood or other means to attack other organs and tissues in the body Laino, online. Different cancers have claimed several million lives over the years. In the s, more than 4. In the past few years, nine million people developed cancers and today, there are more than 12 million people in the United States receiving cancer treatment.
More than half a million people die of cancer every year, that is, at the rate of 1, patients every day. Of all cancers, breast cancer is the most common cancer among women, although it exists in men in rare cases. Doctors have identified several kinds of breast cancers.
This is not to mention the many cases in which a tumor in the breast is nothing more than a cyst or a harmless benign lump ACS, online. Those cancers which remain inside the duct without spreading out are known as in situ cancers. On the other hand, if the cancer cells spread out and invade other areas, they are known as invasive cancers. In inflammatory cases, the cancer cells spread very fast and invade other cells, but it can be identified very easily because it blocks the lymph vessels and the channels in the skin, turning the breast into a hard and warm surface with a clear red color ACS, online.
Breast cancers can be caused by a variety of factors. Until today, many doctors believe that breast cancer has to do with heredity. Furthermore, a gene known as p53 that is directly responsible for causing breast cancer has been found in extremely rare cases.
Research Paper on Breast Cancer - According to the American Cancer Society, Each year, more than , women are diagnosed with breast cancer; furthermore Twelve percent of all women will contract the disease, and % of them will die from breast cancer (American Cancer Society, ).
Research Proposal Paper mihtorg.ga Topic The topic I want to research for my paper is Pancreatic Cancer. 2. 2. What I Already Know I know that this is a cancer of the pancreas, which is .
Aug 18, · This is just a sample Cancer research paper (Cancer research paper example) which cannot be used as your own paper. You can contact our custom research paper writing service which provides college and university students with high-quality custom written essays, term papers, research papers, thesis papers and dissertations on Cancer topics. A small but growing number of patients with cancer are being treated with oncolytic viruses, which infect and kill tumor cells. But research now suggests that these treatments also work against cancer by spurring an immune response.
Research Paper Distribution and Clinical Utility of the gene Recurrence Score in Pure Mucinous Breast Cancer Patients: a case-control study. Cancer Cancer research papers are custom written with any medical health direction that you wish. This is a topic suggestion on Cancer from Paper Masters.