One was placed in the antecubital for the glucose isotope infusion and another in the opposite wrist. The glucose isotope was then infused for minutes for the nondiabetic participants and was extended up to minutes for the diabetic participants. The infusion time for the diabetic patients was extended in proportion to the increase in fasting plasma glucose. Blood samples were taken from each participant before the infusion began to measure the levels of glucose isotope, insulin levels and glucagon concentrations.
Samples of blood were then taken every 10 minutes for the last 20 minutes of the infusion to measure the same levels. The investigators also measured carbon 5 and natural glucose enrichment in blood samples taken the day before the study and measured these levels again at the end of the isotope infusion.
One final blood sample was taken to measure the carbon 5 enrichment after 12 hours fasting. There are independent variables that could not be controlled. These items were such things as waist circumference, waist to hip circumference, fasting plasma glucose and others. The dependent variables were controlled to some degree by means of withholding oral medications from the diabetic patients and treating their plasma glucose by means of diet alone for four weeks prior to the experiment.
Insulin dependent diabetics were excluded from the study and nondiabetic subjects were not taking any medications that were known to affect plasma glucose levels. Literature Review The investigators perform a literature review which is discussed in the introduction of the research.
In this review, the first 19 items on the reference list are reviewed. The studies that were reviewed were state of the art at the time and had dates ranging from to There was also discussion of the limitations of the previous studies and the need for the study the investigators were undertaking. Research Question and Hypothesis The investigators did not develop a hypothesis, but wanted to answer a specific question. This is why you need our highly specialized service as we will provide you with an expert that will be capable of providing you with precisely the help that you require.
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By selecting our services you are always going to be working with the very best experts in your field with many years of experience. Through them you are going to receive excellent service that is fully supported by the guarantees and support that our services provide:. There does not appear to be an independent control utilized in this study. This lack of an independent control limits the validity of this study. Qualitative Critique of Design Article Phenomenology is utilized in the area of inquiry in the experiences of individuals within their life world.
The researchers indicate that bracketing was used before data collection. Descriptive phenomenological was appropriate for the design of this study. This study meets criteria for convenience sampling. Qualitative Sampling Methodology Palese, et al. This study meets the criteria for purposeful sampling.
Critique of Sampling Methodology Quantitative Critique of Sampling Methodology The convenience sampling that was used in recruiting all male patients who were on blood pressure medications is a glaring bias in this study. There was no information provided addressing why the patients were presenting to the clinic. There are many interventions that can raise blood pressure. For example, the study conducted by Marshall, Anantharachagan, Choudhary, Chue and Kaurhis, investigated the effect of situational anxiety on blood pressure experienced in anticipation of a blood test.
The researchers addressed known influential factors verbally, but not all factors were controlled during the experiment. For example, time of day, the white coat effect along with respirations and heart rate were not addressed in the results.
Qualitative Critique of Sampling Methodology Based upon information provided this study was appropriate conducted as a purposeful sampling but, this study also appears to meet the criteria for convenience sampling. There may have been more information provided if the study was expanded beyond 21 participants and occurred at more than one facility.
Step'by-step guide to critiquing research. Part 1: quantitative research Michaei Coughian, Patricia Cronin, Frances Ryan Abstract When caring for patients it is essential that nurses are using the.
Because there are few published examples of critique examples, this article provides the practical points of conducting a formally written quantitative research article critique while providing a brief example to demonstrate the principles and form.
1 Quantitative Article Critique: Factors Affecting the Successful Employment of Transition-Age Youths with Visual Impairments Introduction This article examined some of the issues that affect youths with visual impairments as. Critique of Design Quantitative Critique of Design Article The research question concerns a possible causal relationship between the independent and dependent variable. Crossing the leg is the manipulation, as the independent variable, and the patient’s blood pressure is the ependent variable.
Research questions - guidelines for critiquing a quantitative research study Elements Questions Writing style Is the report well written – concise, grammatically correct, avoid the use of jargon? As far as research for healthcare practice is concerned, quantitative studies hold better status than those based with a qualitative paradigm (Hek, p 19; Newman et al, p ; Pepler et al, , p 23). There is however no real discussion of the underpinning principles of quantitative research (Parahoo, ).