Comey stated the following in a remarkable February speech:. Without a doubt, training for police has become more standardized and professionalized in recent decades. Related jurisprudence is still being defined, most recently in the Scott v. Harris decision by the U.
But inadequate data and reporting — and the challenge of uniformly defining excessive versus justified force — make objective understanding of trends difficult.
The Justice Department releases statistics on this and related issues, although these datasets are only periodically updated: In terms of the use of lethal force, aggregate statistics on incidents of all types are difficult to obtain from official sources. Some journalists are trying to rectify this; and some data journalists question what few official national statistics are available.
The available data, which does not paint a complete national picture, nevertheless raise serious questions, Sunlight notes:.
That statistic is taken from data collected for the years However, Oklahoma, the District of Columbia, Nevada and Oregon are all tied for the rate at which people are killed. In Missouri, where Mike Brown lived and died, black people are killed by law enforcement twice as frequently as white people.
Nationwide, the rate at which black people are killed by law enforcement is 3 times higher than that of white people.
The data show that there have been about such incidents nationwide each year. However, FiveThirtyEight, among other journalism outlets, has examined the potential problems with these figures. News investigations suggest that the rates of deadly force usage are far from uniform. For example, Los Angeles saw an increase in such incidents in , while Massachusetts saw more officers firing their weapon over the period The academic community has also provided some insights in this area.
A study from Matthew J. Hickman of Seattle University, Alex R. Piquero of the University of Maryland and Joel H. Garner of the Joint Centers for Justice Studies reviewed some of the best studies and data sources available to come up with a more precise national estimate for incidents of non-lethal force.
Investigating the intensive margin — the timing of shootings or how many bullets were discharged in the endeavor — there are no detectable racial differences. Researchers continue to refine analytical procedures in order to make more accurate estimates based on police reports and other data.
A widely publicized report in October by ProPublica, a leading investigative and data journalism outlet, concluded that young black males are 21 times more likely to be shot by police than their white counterparts: Although we cannot speculate as to the cause of this finding, or whether it is merely spurious, it is encouraging that minority suspects were not more likely to be injured than whites.
The report finds that: Officer injuries varied little from to , but they are still only about half as common as suspect injuries. Video recordings of interactions between the police and the public have increased significantly in recent years as technology has improved and the number of distribution channels has expanded. Any standard smartphone can now make a video — as was the case in the Walter L. Scott shooting — and dash-mounted cameras in police cars have become increasingly common.
The conclusion should give a sense of why the issue remains relevant or important. It is important to document exactly where you found the information you used in your paper. Your references will often come from published sources including books, articles, other research papers and electronic sources such as web sites, e-books and audio or video media. General Information about Creating a References Page: Introduction Starting Sentence Option 1: National Institute of Justice information on use of force.
Department of Justice information on use of force and excessive force. Police brutality is also known as the excessive use of force by a law enforcement officer in the process of resolving a conflict. Police brutality has a long history involving many political, economic and social factors.
Some prominent cases involving police brutality against unarmed individuals include the Rodney King case of , the Trayvon Martin case of and the Michael Brown and Aaron Garner cases of However, police brutality can occur to anyone regardless of race or creed.
Recent developments in technology including the presence of video cameras on cell phones has helped to bring more potential cases of police brutality to the forefront.
Experts on the excessive use of force can be found within the legal, political and educational communities. Potential causes for the excessive use of force include lack of training in law enforcement, the disposition of the law enforcement officer, potential miscommunication during an altercation, fear of injury during a fight and the unjustified use of a firearm. Possible solutions to reduce instances of police brutality including increased training and accountability measures for law enforcement officers, community engagement and the provision of automatic surveillance camera devices on police vehicles and uniforms.
Closing Statement Starting Sentence Option 1: To enjoy the full writing experience with advanced features continue writing on WriteWellapp.
Argumentative Essay - College.
Excessive or reasonable force by police? Research on law enforcement and racial conflict Keywords: crime, local reporting, racism, violence, police enforcement, police brutality, body cameras, technology, policing. Last updated: July 28, .
But through the history of police brutality, police brutality was first used after a police officer was described beating a civilian in Police brutality is the abuse of force and it is usually through physical.
December 5, Police brutality. Police brutality is one of the most serious and divisive human rights violations in the United States and it occurs in every community. The job of a police officer is to maintain public order, prevent, and detect crime. Police brutality refers to the use of excessive force against a civilian. The controversies that surround the topic of police brutality relate to different READ MORE HERE.
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