These battles were often decorated in propaganda in these nations as symbolic of their power during the war. Colonies such as the British Raj India and Nigeria also became increasingly assertive because of their participation in the war.
The populations in these countries became increasingly aware of their own power and Britain's fragility. In Ireland, the delay in finding a resolution to the home rule issue, partly caused by the war, as well as the Easter Rising and a failed attempt to introduce conscription in Ireland , increased support for separatist radicals.
This led indirectly to the outbreak of the Irish War of Independence in The creation of the Irish Free State that followed this conflict in effect represented a territorial loss for Britain that was all but equal to the loss sustained by Germany, and furthermore, compared to Germany, a much greater loss in terms of its ratio to the country's prewar territory. After World War I women gained the right to vote as, during the war, they had had to fill-in for what were previously categorised as "men's jobs", thus showing the government that women were not as weak and incompetent as they thought.
Also, there were several significant developments in medicine and technology as the injured had to be cared for and there were several new illnesses that medicine had to deal with. While disillusioned by the war, it having not achieved the high ideals promised by President Woodrow Wilson , American commercial interests did finance Europe's rebuilding and reparation efforts in Germany, at least until the onset of the Great Depression.
American opinion on the propriety of providing aid to Germans and Austrians was split, as evidenced by an exchange of correspondence between Edgar Gott , an executive with The Boeing Company and Charles Osner, chairman of the Committee for the Relief of Destitute Women and Children in Germany and Austria. Gott argued that relief should first go to citizens of countries that had suffered at the hands of the Central Powers , while Osner made an appeal for a more universal application of humanitarian ideals.
At the Peace Conference, Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau 's aim was to ensure that Germany would not seek revenge in the following years. To this purpose, the chief commander of the Allied forces, Marshal Ferdinand Foch , had demanded that for the future protection of France the Rhine river should now form the border between France and Germany. Based on history, he was convinced that Germany would again become a threat, and, on hearing the terms of the Treaty of Versailles that had left Germany substantially intact, he observed that "This is not Peace.
It is an Armistice for twenty years. The destruction brought upon French territory was to be indemnified by the reparations negotiated at Versailles. This financial imperative dominated France's foreign policy throughout the s, leading to the Occupation of the Ruhr in order to force Germany to pay. However, Germany was unable to pay, and obtained support from the United States.
Also extremely important in the War was the participation of French colonial troops , including the Senegalese tirailleurs , and troops from Indochina , North Africa, and Madagascar. When these soldiers returned to their homelands and continued to be treated as second class citizens, many became the nuclei of pro-independence groups.
Furthermore, under the state of war declared during the hostilities, the French economy had been somewhat centralized in order to be able to shift into a " war economy ", leading to a first breach with classical liberalism.
However, even if relations with Berlin became very friendly, the alliance with Vienna remained purely formal, as the Italians were keen to acquire Trentino and Trieste , parts of the Austro-Hungarian empire populated by Italians. This could happen since the alliance formally had merely defensive prerogatives, while the Central Empires were the ones who started the offensive.
With the Treaty of London , Britain secretly offered Italy Trentino and Tyrol as far as Brenner , Trieste and Istria , all the Dalmatian coast except Fiume , full ownership of Albanian Valona and a protectorate over Albania , Antalya in Turkey and a share of the Turkish and German colonial empire , in exchange for Italy siding against the Central Empires [ citation needed ].
After the victory, Vittorio Orlando , Italy's President of the Council of Ministers , and Sidney Sonnino , its Foreign Minister , were sent as the Italian representatives to Paris with the aim of gaining the promised territories and as much other land as possible.
In particular, there was an especially strong opinion about the status of Fiume , which they believed was rightly Italian due to Italian population, in agreement with Wilson 's Fourteen Points , the ninth of which read:. Nevertheless, by the end of the war the Allies realized they had made contradictory agreements with other Nations, especially regarding Central Europe and the Middle-East.
In the meetings of the "Big Four", in which Orlando's powers of diplomacy were inhibited by his lack of English, the Great powers were only willing to offer Trentino to the Brenner , the Dalmatian port of Zara , the island of Lagosta and a couple of small German colonies.
All other territories were promised to other nations and the great powers were worried about Italy's imperial ambitions; Wilson, in particular, was a staunch supporter of Yugoslav rights on Dalmatia against Italy and despite the Treaty of London which he did not recognize. This simply favored Britain and France, which divided among themselves the former Ottoman and German territories in Africa.
In Italy, the discontent was relevant: This idea of a "mutilated victory" vittoria mutilata was the reason which led to the Impresa di Fiume " Fiume Exploit ". On September 12, , the nationalist poet Gabriele d'Annunzio led around 2, troops from the Royal Italian Army the Granatieri di Sardegna , nationalists and irredentists, into a seizure of the city, forcing the withdrawal of the inter-Allied American, British and French occupying forces.
The "mutilated victory" vittoria mutilata became an important part of Italian Fascism propaganda. The Republic of China had been one of the Allies; during the war, it had sent thousands of labourers to France. At the Paris Peace Conference in , the Chinese delegation called for an end to Western imperialistic institutions in China, but was rebuffed.
China requested at least the formal restoration of its territory of Jiaozhou Bay , under German colonial control since But the western Allies rejected China's request, instead granting transfer to Japan of all of Germany's pre-war territory and rights in China. Subsequently, China did not sign the Treaty of Versailles, instead signing a separate peace treaty with Germany in The Austro-Hungarian and German concessions in Tianjin were placed under the administration of the Chinese government; in they occupied the Russian area as well.
The western Allies' substantial accession to Japan's territorial ambitions at China's expense led to the May Fourth Movement in China, a social and political movement that had profound influence over subsequent Chinese history. The May Fourth Movement is often cited as the birth of Chinese nationalism , and both the Kuomintang and Chinese Communist Party consider the Movement to be an important period in their own histories.
Because of the treaty that Japan had signed with Great Britain in , Japan was one of the Allies during the war. With British assistance, Japanese forces attacked Germany's territories in Shandong province in China, including the East Asian coaling base of the Imperial German navy. The German forces were defeated and surrendered to Japan in November The Japanese navy also succeeded in seizing several of Germany's island possessions in the Western Pacific: At the Paris Peace Conference in , Japan was granted all of Germany's pre-war rights in Shandong province in China despite China also being one of the Allies during the war: Also, Japan was granted a permanent seat on the Council of the League of Nations.
Nevertheless, the Western powers refused Japan's request for the inclusion of a "racial equality" clause as part of the Treaty of Versailles. Shandong reverted to Chinese control in after mediation by the United States during the Washington Naval Conference. Weihai followed in The experiences of the war in the west are commonly assumed to have led to a sort of collective national trauma afterward for all of the participating countries.
The optimism of was entirely gone and those who fought became what is known as "the Lost Generation " because they never fully recovered from their suffering. For the next few years, much of Europe mourned privately and publicly; memorials were erected in thousands of villages and towns. As early as , Stanley Baldwin recognized a new strategic reality that faced Britain in a disarmament speech.
Poison gas and the aerial bombing of civilians were new developments of the First World War. The British civilian population, for many centuries, had not had any serious reason to fear invasion. So the new threat of poison gas dropped from enemy bombers excited a grossly exaggerated view of the civilian deaths that would occur on the outbreak of any future war. Baldwin expressed this in his statement that " The bomber will always get through. Out of this fear came appeasement. One gruesome reminder of the sacrifices of the generation was the fact that this was one of the first times in conflict whereby more men died in battle than from disease, which was the main cause of deaths in most previous wars.
The Russo-Japanese War was the first conflict where battle deaths outnumbered disease deaths, but it was fought on a much smaller scale between just two nations. This social trauma made itself manifest in many different ways. Some people were revolted by nationalism and what they believed it had caused, so they began to work toward a more internationalist world through organizations such as the League of Nations. Pacifism became increasingly popular. Others had the opposite reaction, feeling that only military strength could be relied upon for protection in a chaotic and inhumane world that did not respect hypothetical notions of civilization.
Certainly a sense of disillusionment and cynicism became pronounced. Nihilism grew in popularity. Many people believed that the war heralded the end of the world as they had known it, including the collapse of capitalism and imperialism. Communist and socialist movements around the world drew strength from this theory, enjoying a level of popularity they had never known before. These feelings were most pronounced in areas directly or particularly harshly affected by the war, such as central Europe, Russia and France.
Similarly, authors such as Erich Maria Remarque wrote grim novels detailing their experiences. These works had a strong impact on society, causing a great deal of controversy and highlighting conflicting interpretations of the war. In Germany, nationalists including the Nazis believed that much of this work was degenerate and undermined the cohesion of society as well as dishonoring the dead.
Throughout the areas where trenches and fighting lines were located, such as the Champagne region of France, quantities of unexploded ordnance have remained, some of which remains dangerous, continuing to cause injuries and occasional fatalities in the 21st century. Some are found by farmers ploughing their fields and have been called the iron harvest. Some of this ammunition contains toxic chemical products such as mustard gas. Cleanup of major battlefields is a continuing task with no end in sight for decades to come.
Squads remove, defuse or destroy hundreds of tons of unexploded ammunition every year in Belgium, France, and Germany. Many towns in the participating countries have war memorials dedicated to local residents who lost their lives.
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This indecision proved fatal for Italy, which did not gain either of the territories. The two million women robbed by the war". Retrieved May 1, Tsingtao German New Guinea and Samoa. Japan provided no special assistance to these people until In the Winter War of —, the Soviet Union invaded neutral Finland and annexed some of its territory.
From until , Finland aligned itself with Nazi Germany in a failed effort to regain lost territories from the Soviets. Finland retained its independence following the war but remained subject to Soviet-imposed constraints in its domestic affairs. In June , the Soviet governments of the Baltic states carried out mass deportations of "enemies of the people"; as a result, many treated the invading Nazis as liberators when they invaded only a week later.
The Atlantic Charter promised self-determination to peoples deprived of it during the war. With the return of Soviet troops at the end of the war, the Forest Brothers mounted a guerrilla war. This continued until the mids. An estimated one million military and civilian Filipinos were killed from all causes; of these , were listed as killed in seventy-two war crime events.
According to a United States analysis released years after the war, U. As a result of the new borders drawn by the victorious nations, large populations suddenly found themselves in hostile territory. Poland lost the Kresy region about half of its pre-War territory and received most of Germany east of the Oder-Neisse line , including the industrial regions of Silesia.
The German state of the Saar was temporarily a protectorate of France but later returned to German administration. As set forth at Potsdam, approximately 12 million people were expelled from Germany, including seven million from Germany proper, and three million from the Sudetenland. During the war, the United States government interned approximately , Japanese Americans and Japanese who lived along the Pacific coast of the United States in the wake of Imperial Japan 's attack on Pearl Harbor.
After the war, some internees chose to return to Japan, while most remained in North America. The Soviet Union expelled at least 2 million Poles from east of the new border approximating the Curzon Line. This estimate is uncertain as both the Polish Communist government and the Soviet government did not keep track of the number of expelled. The number of Polish citizens inhabiting Polish borderlands Kresy region was about 13 million before World War II broke out according to official Polish statistics.
Polish citizens killed in the war that originated from the Polish borderlands territory killed by both German Nazi regime and the Soviet regime or expelled to distant parts of Siberia were accounted as Russian, Ukrainian or Belarusian casualties of war in official Soviet historiography.
This fact imposes additional difficulties in making the correct estimation of the number of Polish citizens forcibly transferred after the war. Additionally, the Soviet Union transferred more than two million people within their own borders; these included Germans, Finns, Crimean Tatars , and Chechens.
As Soviet troops marched across the Balkans, they committed rapes and robberies in Romania , Hungary , Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia. Foreign reports of Soviet brutality were denounced [ by whom? Rapes also occurred under other occupation forces, though the majority were committed by Soviet troops. This offensive attitude among our troops is not at all general, but the percentage is large enough to have given our Army a pretty black name, and we too are considered an army of rapists.
German soldiers left many war children behind in nations such as France and Denmark, which were occupied for an extended period. After the war, the children and their mothers often suffered recriminations. In the first few weeks of the American military occupation of Japan, rape and other violent crime was widespread in naval ports like Yokohama and Yokosuka but declined shortly afterward.
There were 1, reported rapes during the first 10 days of the occupation of Kanagawa prefecture. Historians Eiji Takemae and Robert Ricketts state that "When US paratroopers landed in Sapporo, an orgy of looting, sexual violence, and drunken brawling ensued. Gang rapes and other sex atrocities were not infrequent" and some of the rape victims committed suicide. Eichelberger , the commander of the U. Eighth Army, recorded that in the one instance when the Japanese formed a self-help vigilante guard to protect women from off-duty GIs, the Eighth Army ordered armored vehicles in battle array into the streets and arrested the leaders, and the leaders received long prison terms.
A former prostitute recalled that as soon as Australian troops arrived in Kure in early , they "dragged young women into their jeeps, took them to the mountain, and then raped them. I heard them screaming for help nearly every night'. Such behavior was commonplace, but news of criminal activity by Occupation forces was quickly suppressed.
Rape committed by U. Soon after the U. At the time, there were only women, children and old people in the village, as all the young men had been mobilized for the war. Soon after landing, the marines "mopped up" the entire village, but found no signs of Japanese forces. Taking advantage of the situation, they started "hunting for women" in broad daylight and those who were hiding in the village or nearby air raid shelters were dragged out one after another.
According to Toshiyuki Tanaka, 76 cases of rape or rape-murder were reported during the first five years of the American occupation of Okinawa.
However, he claims this is probably not the true figure, as most cases were unreported. The alliance between the Western Allies and the Soviet Union began to deteriorate even before the war was over,  when Stalin , Roosevelt, and Churchill exchanged a heated correspondence over whether the Polish government-in-exile , backed by Roosevelt and Churchill, or the Provisional Government , backed by Stalin, should be recognised.
A number of allied leaders felt that war between the United States and the Soviet Union was likely. Stalin responded by charging that co-existence between communist countries and the West was impossible. Due to the rising tension in Europe and concerns over further Soviet expansion, American planners came up with a contingency plan code-named Operation Dropshot in It considered possible nuclear and conventional war with the Soviet Union and its allies in order to counter a Soviet takeover of Western Europe, the Near East and parts of Eastern Asia that they anticipated would begin around In response, the US would saturate the Soviet Union with atomic and high-explosive bombs, and then invade and occupy the country.
The approach entailed a major buildup of US nuclear forces and a corresponding reduction in America's non-nuclear ground and naval strength.
In Greece , civil war broke out in between Anglo-American-supported royalist forces and communist-led forces , with the royalist forces emerging as the victors. On 12 March , to gain Congressional support for the aid, President Truman described the aid as promoting democracy in defence of the " free world ", a principle that became known as the Truman Doctrine.
The US sought to promote an economically strong and politically united Western Europe to counter the threat posed by the Soviet Union. This was done openly using tools such as the European Recovery Program , which encouraged European economic integration. The International Authority for the Ruhr , designed to keep German industry down and controlled, evolved into the European Coal and Steel Community , a founding pillar of the European Union.
The United States also worked covertly to promote European integration, for example using the American Committee on United Europe to funnel funds to European federalist movements. However, without the manpower and industrial output of West Germany no conventional defence of Western Europe had any hope of succeeding. The attempt was dashed when the French Parliament rejected it.
In Asia, the surrender of Japanese forces was complicated by the split between East and West as well as by the movement toward national self-determination in European colonial territories. As agreed at the Yalta Conference , the Soviet Union went to war against Japan three months after the defeat of Germany.
The Soviet forces invaded Manchuria. This was the end of the Manchukuo puppet state and all Japanese settlers were forced to leave China. The Soviet Union dismantled the industrial base in Manchuria built up by the Japanese in the preceding years. Manchuria also became a base for the Communist Chinese forces because of the Soviet presence.
After the war, the Kuomintang KMT party led by generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek and the Communist Chinese forces resumed their civil war , which had been temporarily suspended when they fought together against Japan. The fight against the Japanese occupiers had strengthened popular support among the Chinese for the Communist guerrilla forces while it weakened the KMT, who depleted their strength fighting a conventional war.
Full-scale war between the opposing forces broke out in June The KMT forces retreated to the island of Taiwan in Hostilities had largely ceased in Intermittent military clashes occurred between the PRC and Taiwan from Taiwan unilaterally declared the civil war over in , but no formal peace treaty or truce exists and the PRC officially sees Taiwan as a breakaway province that rightfully belongs to it and has expressed its opposition to Taiwanese independence.
Even so, tensions between the two states has decreased over time for example with the Chen-Chiang summits From this point, the relations between them have improved over time although some tension and rivalry remain even with the end of the Cold War and the PRC's distancing from the Communist ideology. At the Yalta Conference , the Allies agreed that an undivided post-war Korea would be placed under four-power multinational trusteeship.
After Japan's surrender, this agreement was modified to a joint Soviet-American occupation of Korea. Korea, formerly under Japanese rule , and which had been partially occupied by the Red Army following the Soviet Union's entry into the war against Japan, was divided at the 38th parallel on the orders of the US War Department.
Hodge , enlisted many former Japanese administrative officials to serve in this government. Simultaneously, the Soviets enabled a build-up of heavy armaments to pro-communist forces in the north. It culminated in the north invading the south, start of the Korean War two years later. Labour and civil unrest broke out in the British colony of Malaya in A state of emergency was declared by the colonial authorities in with the outbreak of acts of terrorism.
In , communist leader Chin Peng reopened hostilities, culminating in a second emergency that lasted until The communist-controlled common front Viet Minh supported by the Allies was formed among the Vietnamese in the colony in to fight for the independence of Vietnam, against both the Japanese and prewar French powers.
After the Vietnamese Famine of support for the Viet Minh was bolstered as the front launched a rebellion, sacking rice warehouses and urging the Vietnamese to refuse to pay taxes.
Because the French colonial authorities started to hold secret talks with the Free French, the Japanese interned them 9 March When Japan surrendered in August, this created a power vacuum, and the Viet Minh took power in the August Revolution , declaring the independent Democratic Republic of Vietnam. However, the Allies including the Soviet Union all agreed that the area belonged to the French. Nationalist Chinese forces moved in from the north and British from the south as the French were unable to do so immediately themselves and then handed power to the French, a process completed by March Attempts to integrate the Democratic Republic of Vietnam with French rule failed and the Viet Minh launched their rebellion against the French rule starting the First Indochina War that same year the Viet Minh organized common fronts to fight the French in Laos and Cambodia.
The war ended in with French withdrawal and a partition of Vietnam that was intended to be temporary until elections could be held. The Democratic Republic of Vietnam held the north while South Vietnam formed into a separate republic in control of Ngo Dinh Diem who was backed in his refusal to hold elections by the US.
The communist party of the south eventually organized the common front NLF to fight to unite south and north under the Democratic Republic of Vietnam and thus began the Vietnam War , which ended with the Democratic Republic of Vietnam conquering the South in Japan invaded and occupied Indonesia during the war and replaced much of the Dutch colonial state.
Although the top positions were held by Japanese, the internment of all Dutch citizens meant that Indonesians filled many leadership and administrative positions. Following the Japanese surrender in August , nationalist leaders Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta declared Indonesian independence. A four and a half-year struggle followed as the Dutch tried to re-establish their colony, using a significant portion of their Marshall Plan aid to this end.
Although Dutch forces re-occupied most of Indonesia's territory, a guerrilla struggle ensued, and the majority of Indonesians, and ultimately international opinion, favoured Indonesian independence. In December , the Netherlands formally recognised Indonesian sovereignty. British covert operations in the Baltic States, which began in against the Nazis, escalated after the war.
Vietnam and the Middle East would later damage the reputation gained by the US during its successes in Europe. In later years, African countries used as proxies in the Cold War would often become "failed states" of their own. When the divisions of postwar Europe began to emerge, the war crimes programmes and denazification policies of Britain and the United States were relaxed in favour of recruiting German scientists, especially nuclear and long-range rocket scientists.
Western Allied occupation force officers in Germany were ordered to refuse to cooperate with the Soviets in sharing captured wartime secret weapons,  the recovery for which, specifically in regards to advanced German aviation technology and personnel, the British had sent the Fedden Mission into Germany to contact its aviation technology centers and key personnel, paralleled by the United States with its own Operation Lusty aviation technology personnel and knowledge recovery program.
The wartime activities of some Operation Paperclip scientists would later be investigated. Following his acquittal, he returned to the United States in and eventually became a US citizen.
The Soviets began Operation Osoaviakhim in NKVD and Soviet army units effectively deported thousands of military-related technical specialists from the Soviet occupation zone of post-war Germany to the Soviet Union. As a general consequence of the war and in an effort to maintain international peace,  the Allies formed the United Nations UN , which officially came into existence on 24 October The LN was formally dissolved on 20 April but had in practice ceased to function in , being unable to stop the outbreak of World War II.
South-West Africa , an exception, was still governed under terms of the original mandate. As the successor body to the League, the UN still assumed a supervisory role over the territory.
The Free City of Danzig , a semi-autonomous city state that was partly overseen by the League, became part of Poland. The UN adopted The Universal Declaration of Human Rights in , "as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations. The US did not ratify the social and economic rights sections. The permanent members can veto any United Nations Security Council resolution , the only UN decisions that are binding according to international law.
The five powers at the time of founding were: This was changed in when the PRC was given the permanent membership previously held by the Republic of China.
Russia inherited the permanent membership of the Soviet Union in after the dissolution of that state. Japanese holdouts persisted on various islands in the Pacific Theatre until at least Although all hostilities are now resolved, a peace treaty has never been signed between Japan and Russia due to the Kuril Islands dispute. In Europe, West Germany , after having continued to decline economically during the first years of the Allied occupation, later experienced a remarkable recovery , and had by the end of the s doubled production from its pre-war levels.
The Soviet Union also experienced a rapid increase in production in the immediate post-war era. By , economic restoration seemed fairly successful as production had resumed pre-war levels. At the end of the war, the United States produced roughly half of the world's industrial output. The US, of course, had been spared industrial and civilian devastation. Further, much of its pre-war industry had been converted to wartime usage.
As a result, with its industrial and civilian base in much better shape than most of the world, the US embarked on an economic expansion unseen in human history.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Diplomacy Declarations of war Engagements Operations. Eastern Front Manhattan Project. Occupation and annexation of the Baltic states by the Soviet Union Japanese occupation of the Philippines. This section may lend undue weight to certain ideas, incidents, or controversies. Please help improve it by rewriting it in an neutral presentation that contextualizes different points of view.
November Learn how and when to remove this template message. Rape during the occupation of Germany. Rape during the occupation of Japan. Decolonization of Asia and Wars of national liberation. Chinese Civil War and Cross-Strait relations. Post—World War II economic expansion.
The aftermath of World War I saw drastic political, cultural, economic, and social change across Eurasia (Europe and Asia), Africa, and even in areas outside those that were directly involved. Four empires collapsed due to the war, old countries were abolished, new ones were formed, boundaries were redrawn, international organizations were.
Aftermath of World War I and the Rise of Nazism, – - US Holocaust Memorial Museum (Full film) Efforts of the western European powers to marginalize Germany undermined and isolated its democratic leaders.
The task of drawing Europe’s post-war borders fell primarily to the Paris Peace Conference of There the victorious countries’ leaders drafted the Treaty of Versailles with Germany, and those of Saint-Germain with Austria, Trianon with Hungary, Neuilly with Bulgaria, and Sèvres with Turkey. A look at the major consequences of World War I, from redrawing the map to creating myths that would contribute to a second great war.
Practice wwi aftermath with Khan Academy's free online exercises. The effects of World War 1 are still being felt a century after its conclusion. It was the deadliest war which involved more countries and was more expensive than any other war before it. The weapons used during WW1 were also more advanced than any previous war, using tanks, submarines, poison gas.