Each earthquake differs from the other and thus it becomes difficult to classify all the earthquakes into certain categories. A Natural earthquakes are those which are caused by natural processes i. Examples, severe earthquakes caused by violent explosions of Krakatao volcano in and Etna volcano in Such earthquakes are very severe and disastrous.
The centres foci of these earthquakes are generally located within the depths ranging from km to km. Moderate and intermediate earthquakes are also called as shallow focus and intermediate focus earthquakes respectively. Earthquakes are grouped into 3 categories on the basis of their hazardous impacts in terms of human casualties: An earthquake becomes hazard and desaster only when it strikes the populated area.
The shocks produced by earthquakes particularly in those hilly and mountainous areas which are composed of weaker lithologies and are tectonically sensitive and weak cause slope instability and slope failure and ultimately cause landslides and debris falls which damage settlements and transport systems on the lower slope segments.
The shocks generated by Peruvian earthquake of May, triggered off the collapse of ice caps seated on the peak of high mountain called Huascaran of m height near the town of Yungay in Peru.
Thus, the earthquakes cause more damages in the areas of unconsolidated ground than their counterparts in the regions of solid structures and bedrocks. Two major earthquakes of Bihar-Nepal border in and can explain the impact of earthquake disasters on human structures and human lives. The damage caused by the Bihar earthquake of 15 January, , measuring 8.
Earthquakes have their worst effects on towns and cities because of highest density of buildings and large agglomerations of human populations. The sad tale of the destruction of Mexico city due to the earthquake of has already been described. Recent Bhuj earthquake of Gujarat Jan. It may be pointed out that it is not the intensity magnitude of Richter scale of earthquake alone which matters more as regards the human casualities but it is the density of human population and houses which matter more in terms of human deaths and loss of property.
More than 40, people lost their lives in the devastating earthquake of Turkey August 17, which recorded 7. For example, the house wives were cooking their lunches in the kitchens when disastrous killer earthquake struck in the vicinity of Tokyo and Sagami Bay in Consequently, severe fire broke out which claimed the lives of 38, people out of total fatalities of 1,63, caused by the earthquake through various processes.
This earthquake resulted into total loss of property worth 2, million US dollars. The severe earthquake of San Fransisco USA , which occurred on April 18, , caused widespread fires in several parts of the city. No water could be made available immediately to extinguish the fire because water pipes were also broken and displaced by the earthquake. Two biggest oil refineries of Turkey were completely devastated due to fire caused by the killer earthquake of August 17, 7. The Assam earthquake caused a large fault measuring Several faults were created in the mouth areas of the Mississippi river because of the earthquakes of , and in the Mississippi valley.
The alluvial-filled areas of the flood plains of the Mississippi were fractured at many places which forced ground surface at few places to collapse. This process resulted in the formation of lakes and marshes. It may be pointed out that subsidence in one area is followed by emergence of the land in other area.
This also happened in the Indus delta area as a large area measuring 80 km in length and 26 km in width was raised by 3 m from the surrounding area. Similarly, the coastal land of Chile was raised from 6m to 13 m because of the earthquake of The seafloor of Sagami Bay of Japan was subsided from m to m because of the earthquake of Strong seismic events result in the damages of dams and cause severe flash floods.
Severe floods are also caused because of blocking of water flow of rivers due to rock blocks and debris produced by severe tremors on the hill slopes facing the river valleys. Sometimes, the blockade of the rivers is so immense that even the main course of the river is changed.
Similarly, the dam on Subansiri River broke in and resultant flash flood submerged an area of square kilometres. The Kutch earthquake of June 16, generated strong tsunamis which submerged the coastal areas and inflicted great damage to ships and country-made boats of the fishermen. The land area measuring 24 km in length was raised upward because of tectonic movement triggered by the said earthquake which provided shelter to the stranded and marooned people.
The great tsunamis caused by the Lisbon earthquake of the year in Portugal generated about 12 m high sea waves which damaged most parts of Lisbon city and killed 30, to 60, people. The impact of this earthquake was so enormous that the waters of inland lakes like Looh Lomond and Looh Ness continued to oscillate for several hours. The strong tsunamis triggered by Lisbon earthquake also caused 3. The earthquake caused by violent volcanic eruption of Karakatoa in caused enormous tsunamis which generated As these waves approach coastal land, the depth of oceanic water decreases but the height of tsunamis increases enormously and when they strike the coast, they cause havoc in the coastal areas.
The best example of tsunami induced by violent volcanic eruption is from Krakatao eruption which occurred in Severe earthquake caused by Krakatao eruption generated furious tsunami waves ranging in 30 to 40 meters in height average being feet or These waves were so violent that they ravaged the coasts of Java and Sumatra and killed 36, people.
The Kutch earthquake of June 16, generated strong tsunamis which submerged the coastal areas. The land area measuring 24 km in length was raised upward because of tectonic movements. Earlier, people were unaware of the reasons of earthquake occurrence and the extent of damage. They believed that earthquake occur whenever mother earth become angry with them. It was Aristotle a great Greek philosopher who made people aware that earthquake occur because of some physical factors.
He told that, some parts of land moves whenever air compressed within the arch escapes which is called as volcanic activity. Earthquake waves cause movement in the surrounding areas because of air pressure and imbalance. Another reason of earthquake occurrence is isostatic adjustment.
Earth surface contains some raised and depressed blocks which make balance of earth surface however the balance disturb when blocks moves revolving on units of axis.
Raised blocks get down and cause imbalance on the earth surface which inturn cause earthquake. Generally, it occurs in the volcano prime areas, under the feet of mountains and hills. However, it is not sure that earthquakes do not occur in other places. Earthquake may occur anytime in any part of the world. Some of the earthquakes become weak however some of them become very strong with huge force which may shake the earth suface far away from the centre point.
Earthquakes with huge intensity become really dangerous and cause severe damage. According to the scientific study with the help of Seismograph, there are some secondary waves and tertiary waves in the earthquake.
Himalaya zone, the Ganga, Deccan Plateau, the Brahmaputra valleys, etc are the earthquake prone areas in India. Kutch Gujarat, India earthquake of the year was so massive calculated 8 on Richeter Scale and affected a huge area around square kilometers depressed by 15 feet and square kilometers raised by 50 feet.
More than people were killed in the earthquake event of Latur and Osmanabad districts of Maharashtra on 30 th of September in Earthquake is the result of release of elastic energy after forceful tectonic plate movements. Elastic energy released in the form of seismic or shock waves which travels for a long distance outwards in all directions from the centre point a place of maximum destruction. High-rise buildings and ancient structures of the cities like Delhi can be badly affected by the seismic force of earthquake.
Earthquake is a very dangerous natural disaster which occurs as a sudden shaking movement of rocks in the earth's crust. Some of the earthquakes of low intensity become less dangerous however earthquakes having high intensity become very dangerous and can be extremely violent especially in the areas it occurs. There is no any fix duration for the occurrence of earthquake, it may occur anytime and anywhere for any duration. It may be brief but repeat many times a day. Earthquake is the result of sudden energy release within the surface of earth.
This released energy under earth crust creates powerful seismic waves which travel through the earth surface. The frequency of waves and type and size of earthquake is measured by the help of seismology which involves the use of seismometer. Large earthquakes may destroy things to a great extent as they take down huge buildings, cause injury and thus death of people. There are various scales used to measure the intensity of shaking and the magnitude of an earthquake.
The surface of the earth has certain raised up blocks and certain depressed blocks. They keep the balance of the earth, when it moves revolving on units of axis. These raised up blocks are washed down due to various reasons and cause imbalance.
Then also the earthquakes occur to regain and maintain that balance. We could therefore see that earthquakes commonly occur in volcano prime areas and under the feet of hills and mountains, no well settle Earthquakes frequently occur in China, Japan, Philippines, southern parts of the Himalayas, volcano prime parts of Europe and western parts of North and South America.
They are also likely to occur in Rajasthan in India and Arabian countries. One cannot say that earthquakes do not occur in other places. They may occur in any part of the world at any time. We are not very sure of the underground movements of the earth and its pressure points.
So one can only identify areas, where they are likely to occur. All earthquakes do not cause severe damage. Those which are of severe intensity are really dangerous. There are scales to measure the intensity of the earthquake. It is qualitative scale and not a quantitative scale and so not useful to measure the intensity.
Earthquakes Essay example - I chose to research earthquakes and the prediction of earthquakes because I was curious as to how they work. In this paper, I will discus the history of earthquakes, the kinds and locations of earthquakes, earthquake effects, intensity scales, prediction, and my own predictions.
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A third way to classify the earthquakes is on the basis of their intensity, which is defined by the effects or degree of damage that an earthquake produces on the structure and features of the earth. A numbers of scales of intensity have been suggested. Learn how to write your earthquake essay fast! Earthquake is a natural disaster that causes lots of damage and loss of lives. Earthquakes are result of the sudden release of earth’s energy stored in earth’s crust.
Earthquake is one of the natural calamities. Its origin can be traced to the early days of earth formation. It is responsible for a lot of damage to living and non-living beings. For many centuries man didn’t know why earthquakes occur and how they occur and to what extent they would damage. Earthquake essays (A parrellel to Typhon) The myth of Earthquake has three different purposes. First, its shows the power of Zeus, being able to maintain peace and order in the universe which he rules. Earthquake is the first challenger of Zeus's great power. Earthquake is a ver.